Annual Survey of India’s City-Systems

Our diagnostic study that evaluates the quality of governance in cities

“It is a meticulous and praise-worthy effort. I endorse the ten key recommendations made in the report. They can deepen the principles of decentralization and devolution in urban governance and revitalize the spirit of the 74th Constitutional Amendment Act (1992),”
Hardeep Singh Puri, Minister of Housing and Urban Affairs, Government of India on ASICS 2023

Systemic nature of India’s urban challenges

From floods and garbage crises to power cuts and pollution, so many of the issues that our cities and towns face repeat like a broken record, over and over again. One could say that our cities are not faced with a hundred different problems but the same problems repeated a hundred times.

To address these recurring urban challenges, we need to fix the root causes that lie within ‘city-systems’. Janaagraha’s City-systems Framework consists of four distinct but interrelated components that together make up urban governance.

  • Urban Planning and Design (spatial planning, land, and design of public spaces)
  • Urban Capacities and Resources (finance, staffing, performance management, and digitalisation in city governments)
  • Empowered and Legitimate Political Representation (empowered and accountable mayors and councils) Transparency
  • Accountability and Participation (citizen participation in neighbourhood-level governance).

Urban planning and design

spatial planning, land, and design of public spaces

Urban capacities and resources

finance, staffing, performance management, and digitalisation in city governments

Empowered and legitimate political representation

empowered and accountable mayors and councils

Transparency, accountability and participation

citizen participation in neighbourhood-level governance.

We believe fixing India’s city-systems is a necessary pre-condition for a better quality of life and for preserving and nurturing the natural environment of our cities and towns.

About ASICS

Our flagship initiative, the Annual Survey of India’s City-Systems (ASICS) is a comprehensive diagnostic of the state of India’s city-systems – the complex, mostly invisible factors (such as laws, policies, institutions, and institutional processes) that underpin urban governance and strongly influence the quality of life in India’s cities.

ASICS is a health diagnostic of our cities. It is intended to serve as a bellwether of the degree and direction of systemic reforms being undertaken by governments in the urban context.

ASICS aims to provide a common frame of reference for political and administrative leaders, business and academia, media, and civil society, in different cities to converge on their agenda for transformative reforms.

ASICS over the years

ASICS, since its first edition in 2013, has improved its coverage besides strengthening its methodology. In its past editions, ASICS evaluated cities by scoring them on a scale of 0 to 10. The ASICS score of a city is an indication of the health of its governance systems and therefore, its ability to deliver a good quality of life in the medium to long term. Further, global cities such as New York, London, and Johannesburg (in 2017) were added to the study to serve as reference points for India’s cities.

ASICS 2023

ASICS 2023 evaluates the quality of urban laws (municipal acts and town and country planning acts) of all 35 states/Union Territories (UTs) in India through 52 questions using the city-systems framework. Further, to make the study more relevant, 25 additional data sets were analysed. For example, data on implementation aspects such as cities with active master plans, ward committees, disclosure of civic data by cities, as well as data that offers perspectives on India’s urbanisation such as the definition of urban in India, and district urbanisation patterns basis census 2011, etc. CAG performance audit reports on the implementation of the 74th CAA across 13 states were also analysed.

Cities in India are principally governed by their respective state municipal acts and town and country planning acts. An evaluation of the quality of these acts along with allied acts such as community participation law or public disclosure law (where they are separate), and policy documents such as open data policy give a comprehensive understanding of the quality of urban governance in India from a root cause perspective.

Janaagraha’s Annual Conclave on Shaping India’s Urban Agenda

The ASICS 2023 report was launched by Mr Hardeep Singh Puri, Minister of Housing and Urban Affairs, Government of India, on October 17th, 2023 in Janaagraha’s Annual Conclave on Shaping India’s Urban Agenda 2023.

The launch was followed by an engaging panel discussion on ‘The Future of India’s City-Systems’ with B V R Subrahmanyam, CEO, NITI Aayog, Vidya Shah, Executive Chairperson, EdelGive Foundation and, Srikanth Viswanathan, CEO, Janaagraha. The discussion was moderated by Latha Venkatesh, Executive Editor, CNBC TV 18.

The Annual Conclave also included other exciting conversations such as:

  • ‘City Finance: Catalysing Large-Scale Capital for India’s Cities and Towns’. Closed-door panel discussions with senior policymakers.
    • Panel Discussion 1: Municipal Borrowings
    • Panel Discussion 2: Fiscal Decentralisation
  • ‘City-systems: Reimagining the Architecture of City Institutions’ Closed-door roundtable on strengthening the institutional design of governance of India’s cities.

Attended by parliamentarians, legislators, senior bureaucrats, and academic experts, the conclave served as a platform for a diverse set of stakeholders to collaborate and contribute to shaping India’s urban agenda. The details of the speakers can be viewed here

PAST EDITIONS

Read our past editions of ASICS reports to know more about how the governance of our cities have fared over the years

Data Nuggets

ASICS 2023

ASICS 2017

Image Gallery

ASICS 2023

ASICS 2017

VIDEO Gallery

ASICS 2023

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ASICS 2017

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ASICS in News

Our reports have always gained attention in English and vernacular newspapers, online news sites as well as on radio and TV. See all our media mentions here.

Janaagraha recommends five-year term for mayor
Deccan Herald | 17 October

In charts: Why cities in India fail on quality of life
Livemint | 21 October

Cities must transform to gain from reform push, finds report
Hindustan Times | 18 October

Master Plan: 39 फीसदी राजधानियों के पास मास्टर प्लान नहीं, शहरी विकास मंत्री हरदीप पुरी ने जारी की रिपोर्ट
Amarujala | 17 October

Staff shortage, financial dependency plague local governance in India | Data
The Hindu | 3 November

Poor governance burdens Indian cities, finds survey
Mongabay | 26 October

शहरी सर्वे रिपोर्ट में मेयरों के निश्चित कार्यकाल की सिफारिश, केंद्रीय सहायता के भरोसे रहने के बजाय खुद आगे आएं राज्य
Jagran | 17 October

Ensure fast urbanising districts don’t remain ‘blind spots’ — Bengaluru think tank to policymakers
The Print | 18 October

‘39% capitals in India have no active master plan’: Bengaluru think tank flags ‘unplanned urbanisation’
The Print | 17 October

New Credit Linked Subsidy Scheme for low-income groups will be announced soon, says Hardeep Puri
CNBC | 18 October

ASICS in the news 2017

Videos

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Press Mentions

Featured Resources

We have curated an extensive list of resources related to urban governance in India. You can access and view them here.

Municipal Acts

StateMunicipal Acts
Andaman and Nicobar IslandsAndaman and Nicobar Islands (Municipal) Regulation, 1994
Arunachal Pradesh MunicipalitiesArunachal Pradesh Municipal Act, 2007
Arunachal Pradesh Municipal CorporationsArunachal Pradesh Municipal Corporation Act, 2019
Andhra Pradesh MunicipalitiesAndhra Pradesh Municipalities Act, 1965
Andhra Pradesh Municipal CorporationsHyderabad Municipal Corporation Act, 1956
Assam MunicipalitiesAssam Municipal Act, 1956
Assam Municipal CorporationAssam Municipal Corporation Act, 2022
GuwahatiGuwahati Municipal Corporation Act, 1971
BiharBihar Municipal (Amendment) Act, 2021
ChandigarhPunjab Municipal Corporation Law (Extension to Chandigarh) Act, 1994
Chhattisgarh MunicipalitiesChhattisgarh Municipalities Act, 1961
Chhattisgarh Municipal CorporationsChhattisgarh Municipal Corporation Act, 1956
Dadra & Nagar Haveli and Daman & DiuDadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu Municipal Council Regulation, 2004
Delhi Municipal CorporationDelhi Municipal Corporation Act, 1957
New Delhi Municipal CouncilNew Delhi Municipal Council Act, 1994
GoaGoa Municipalities Act, 1968
PanajiCity of Panaji Corporation Act, 2002
Gujarat MunicipalitiesGujarat Municipalities Act, 1963
Gujarat Municipal CorporationsGujarat Provincial Municipal Corporations Act, 1949
Haryana MunicipalitiesHaryana Municipal Act, 1973
Haryana Municipal CorporationsHaryana Municipal Corporation Employees (Recruitment and Conditions) Service Rules, 1998
Himachal Pradesh MunicipalitiesHimachal Pradesh Municipal Act, 1994
Himachal Pradesh Municipal CorporationsHimachal Pradesh Municipal Corporation Act, 1994
JharkhandJharkhand Municipal Act, 2011
Jammu and Kashmir Municipal CorporationJammu and Kashmir Municipal Corporation Act, 2000
Jammu and Kashmir MunicipalitiesJammu and Kashmir Municipal Act, 2000
Karnataka MunicipalitiesKarnataka Municipalities (Recruitment of Officers and Employees) Rules, 2010
Karnataka Municipal CorporationsKarnataka Municipal Corporations (Common Recruitment of Officers and Employees) Rules, 2011
BengaluruBBMP Act, 2020
KeralaKerala Municipal Act, 1994
LadakhJammu and Kashmir Municipal Corporation Act, 2000
Madhya Pradesh MunicipalitiesMadhya Pradesh Municipalities Act, 1961
Madhya Pradesh Municipal CorporationsMadhya Pradesh Municipal Corporations Act, 1956
Maharashtra MunicipalitiesMaharashtra Municipal Councils, Nagar Panchayats and Industrial Townships State Services (Absorption, Recruitment and Conditions of Service) Rules, 2006
Maharashtra Municipal CorporationsMaharashtra Municipal Corporation Act, 1949
MumbaiMumbai Municipal Corporation Act, 1888
ManipurManipur Municipalities Act, 1994
MeghalayaMeghalaya Municipal Act, 1973
MizoramMizoram Municipalities Act, 2007
NagalandNagaland Municipal Act, 2001
Odisha MunicipalitiesOdisha Municipal Services (General) Rules, 2016
Odisha Municipal CorporationsOdisha Municipal Services (General) Rules, 2016
PuducherryPuducherry Municipality Act, 1973
Punjab MunicipalitiesPunjab Municipal Act, 1911
Punjab Municipal CorporationsPunjab Municipal Corporation Act, 1976
RajasthanRajasthan Municipalities Act, 2009
SikkimSikkim Municipalities Act, 2007
Telangana MunicipalitiesTelangana Municipalities Act, 2019
HyderabadHyderabad Municipal Corporation Act, 1956
Tamil Nadu MunicipalitiesTamil Nadu District Municipalities Act, 1920
ChennaiChennai Municipal Corporation Act, 1919
MaduraiMadurai City Municipal Corporation Act, 1971
CoimbatoreCoimbatore City Municipal  Corporation Act, 1981
TripuraTripura Municipal Act, 1994
Uttar Pradesh MunicipalitiesUttar Pradesh Municipalities Act, 1916
Uttar Pradesh Municipal CorporationsUttar Pradesh Municipal Corporation Act, 1959
Uttarakhand MunicipalitiesUttar Pradesh Municipalities Act, 1916
Uttarakhand Municipal CorporationsUttar Pradesh Municipal Corporation Act, 1959
West Bengal MunicipalitiesWest Bengal Municipal Act, 1993
West Bengal Municipal CorporationsWest Bengal Municipal Corporation Act, 2006
KolkataKolkata Municipal Corporation Act, 1980
HowrahHowrah Municipal Corporation Act, 1980

Town and Country Planning Acts

CityTown and Country Planning Act
Andaman and Nicobar IslandsAndaman and Nicobar Islands Town and Country Planning Regulation, 1994
Arunachal Pradesh MunicipalitiesArunachal Pradesh Urban and Country Planning Act, 2007
Andhra Pradesh MunicipalitiesAndhra Pradesh (Andhra Area) Town Planning Act, 1920
Assam Municipal CorporationAssam Town and Country Planning Act, 1959
BiharBihar Urban Planning and Development Act, 2012
ChandigarhPunjab Regional and Town Planning and Development Act, 1995
Chhattisgarh MunicipalitiesChhattisgarh Nagar Tatha Gram Nivesh Adhiniyam, 1973
Dadra & Nagar Haveli and Daman & DiuGoa, Daman and Diu Town and Country Planning Act, 1974 as extended to the union territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli
Delhi Municipal CorporationDelhi Development Act, 1957
GoaGoa, Daman and Diu Town and Country Planning Act, 1974
Gujarat Municipal CorporationsGujarat Urban Planning and Development Act, 1976
Haryana Municipal CorporationsHaryana Urban Development Authority Act
Himachal Pradesh Municipal CorporationsHimachal Pradesh Town and Country Planning Act, 1977
JharkhandBihar Town Planning and Improvement Trust Act, 1973
Jammu and Kashmir MunicipalitiesJammu and Kashmir Development Act 1970
KarnatakaKarnataka Town and Country Planning Act, 1961
KeralaKerala Town and Country Planning Act, 2016
LadakhJammu and Kashmir Development Act 1970
Madhya Pradesh Municipal CorporationsMadhya Pradesh Nagar Tatha Gram Nivesh Adhiniyam, 1973
MaharashtraMaharashtra Regional and Town Planning Act, 1966
ManipurManipur Town and Country Planning Act, 1975
MeghalayaMeghalaya Town and Country Planning Act, 1973
MizoramMizoram Urban and Regional Development Act, 1990
NagalandNagaland Town and Country Planning Act, 1966
Odisha Municipal CorporationsOrissa Town Planning and Improvement Trust Act, 1956
PuducherryPuducherry Town and Country Planning Act, 1969
Punjab Municipal CorporationsPunjab Regional and Town Planning and Development Act, 1995
RajasthanRajasthan Urban Improvement Act, 1959
SikkimSikkim Urban and Regional Planning and Development Act, 1998
Telangana MunicipalitiesTelangana (Andhra Area) Town Planning Act, 1920
Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu Town and Country Planning Act, 1971
TripuraTripura Town and Country Planning Act, 1975
Uttar Pradesh MunicipalitiesUttar Pradesh Planning and Development Act, 1973
Uttarakhand Municipal CorporationsUttarakhand Urban and Country Planning and Development Act, 1973
West Bengal MunicipalitiesWest Bengal Town and Country (Planning and Development) Act, 1979

Public Disclosure Law

CityPublic Disclosure Law
Andhra Pradesh MunicipalitiesAndhra Pradesh Municipalities (Disclosure of information to the general public) Rules, 2009
Andhra Pradesh Municipal CorporationsGreater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation (Disclosure of information to the general public) Rules, 2009
Assam Municipal CorporationAssam Municipality Disclosure Act, 2007 
BiharBihar Municipality Disclosure Act, 2008
Chhattisgarh MunicipalitiesChhattisgarh Municipal (Public Disclosure Law) Rules, 2012
Gujarat MunicipalitiesGujarat Disclosure Law
Haryana MunicipalitiesHaryana Municipal Disclosure Rules, 2009
Himachal Pradesh Municipal CorporationsHimachal Pradesh Municipality Disclosure Act, 2009
JharkhandJharkhand Municipal Act, 2011
Jammu and Kashmir Municipal CorporationJammu and Kashmir Municipalities Public Disclosure Act, 2010
BengaluruKarnataka Right to Information (Disclosure of Information by Authorities Providing Municipal Services Rules, 2009
KeralaKerala Municipality Act 1994 – Directions for Public Disclosure
LadakhJammu and Kashmir Municipalities Public Disclosure Act, 2010
Madhya Pradesh MunicipalitiesMadhya Pradesh Municipality (Public Disclosure of Information) Rules, 2009
ManipurManipur Municipality Disclosure Act, 2008
MeghalayaMeghalaya Disclosure Act, 2010
MizoramMizoram Municipality (Disclosure of assets and furnishing of other information) Rules, 2015
Punjab MunicipalitiesPunjab Municipality Compulsory Disclosure Rules, 2012
Telangana MunicipalitiesTelangana Municipalities Act, 2019
HyderabadGreater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation Act, 1955
Tamil Nadu MunicipalitiesTamil Nadu Town Panchayats, Third Grade Municipalities, Municipalities and Municipal Corporations (Public Disclosure) Rules, 2009
TripuraTripura Municipality Disclosure Act, 2007
Uttar Pradesh MunicipalitiesUP Municipalities (Public Disclosure of Information) Rules, 2010
West Bengal MunicipalitiesWest Bengal Municial Act, 1993

Community Participation Law

CityCommunity Participation Law
Arunachal Pradesh MunicipalitiesArunachal Pradesh Municipal Ward Committee and Area Sabha Representative (Election of Members of Committee, Powers and Functions) Regulation, 2015
Andhra Pradesh MunicipalitiesAndhra Pradesh Municipalities (Constitution, Conduct of Meetings, Powers and Functions of Ward Committees, Area Sabhas and Ward Sabhas) Rules, 2010
Andhra Pradesh Municipal CorporationsGreater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation (Constitution, Conduct of Meetings, Powers and Functions of Ward Committees and Area Sabhas) Rules, 2010
Assam Municipal CorporationAssam Nagar Raj Act, 2007 
BiharBihar Community Participation Rules, 2013 
Chhattisgarh MunicipalitiesChhattisgarh Nagar Palika Mohalla Samiti (Constitution, Functions, Powers and Procedure for Conduct of Business) Rules, 2005
Gujarat Municipal CorporationsGujarat UDD Notification 
Haryana MunicipalitiesHaryana Municipal Citizens’ Participation Act, 2008
Jammu and Kashmir Municipal CorporationJammu and Kashmir Municipal laws (Second Amendment) Act, 2010
BengaluruKarnataka Municipal Corporation Ward Committee rules, 2016
Madhya Pradesh MunicipalitiesM.P. Nagar Palika Mohalla Committee (Constitution, Functions, Powers and Procedure for Conduct of Business) Rules, 2001
Madhya Pradesh Municipal CorporationsM.P. Municipal Corporation (Duties and Powers and Procedure of Conduct of Business of Wards Committees) Rules, 1995; M.P. Nagar Palika Mohalla Committee (Constitution, Functions, Powers and Procedure for Conduct of Business) Rules, 2001
ManipurManipur Municipality Community Participation Act, 2010;
Manipur Municipality Community Participation (Election of Ward Development Committee Members)Rules, 2010
MizoramMizoram Municipalities (Ward Committee and Local Council) Rules, 2010
Odisha Municipal CorporationsOdisha Municipal Laws Amendment Act, 2015
HyderabadGreater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation (Constitution, Conduct of Meetings, Powers and Functions of Ward Committees and Area Sabhas) Rules, 2010
Tamil Nadu MunicipalitiesTamil Nadu Urban Local Bodies (Ward Committees and Area Sabha) Rules, 2022
Uttar Pradesh MunicipalitiesUttar Pradesh Municipalities (Ward Committee) Rules, 2014
Uttar Pradesh Municipal CorporationsUttar Pradesh Municipal Corporation (Ward Committee) Rules, 2014
Uttarakhand MunicipalitiesUttarakhand (Uttar Pradesh Municipalities Act, 1916) (Adaptation and Modification Order, 2002)
Uttarakhand Municipal CorporationsUttarakhand (Uttar Pradesh Municipal Corporation Act, 1959) (Adaptation and modification order, 2002)
West Bengal MunicipalitiesWest Bengal Municipal (Ward Committee) Rules, 2001; West Bengal Municipal (Area Sabhas) Rules, 2009

Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Acts

StateFiscal responsibility and budget management acts
Andhra PradeshAndhra Pradesh Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act, 2005
Arunachal PradeshArunachal Pradesh Fiscal Responsibility Act, 2006
AssamAssam Local Self-Government Fiscal Responsibility Act, 2011
BiharBihar Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act, 2006
ChhattisgarhChhattisgarh Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act, 2005
GoaGoa Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act, 2006
GujaratGujarat Fiscal Responsibility Act, 2005
HaryanaHaryana Fiscal Responsibility Act, 2005
Himachal PradeshHimachal Pradesh Fiscal Responsibility Act, 2005
Jammu and KashmirJammu and Kashmir Fiscal Responsibility Act, 2006
JharkhandJharkhand Fiscal Responsibility Act, 2007 
KarnatakaKarnataka Local Fund Authorities Fiscal Responsibility Act, 2003
KeralaKerala Fiscal Responsibility Act, 2003
Madhya PradeshMadhya Pradesh Fiscal Responsibility Act, 2005
MaharashtraMaharashtra Fiscal Responsibility Act, 2005
ManipurManipur Fiscal Responsibility Act, 2005
MeghalayaMeghalaya Fiscal Responsibility Act, 2006
MizoramMizoram Fiscal Responsibility Act, 2006
NagalandNagaland Fiscal Responsibility Act, 2005
OdishaOdisha Fiscal Responsibility Act, 2005
PunjabPunjab Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act, 2003
RajasthanRajasthan Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act, 2005
SikkimSikkim Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act, 2010
Tamil NaduTamil Nadu Fiscal Responsibility Act, 2003
TelanganaTelangana Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act, 2005
TripuraTripura Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act, 2005
Uttar PradeshUttar Pradesh Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act, 2004
UttarakhandUttarakhand Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act, 2005
West BengalWest Bengal Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act, 2011

Cadre and Recruitment Rules

StateCadre and Recruitment Rules
Andhra PradeshAndhra Pradesh Municipal Administration Service rules 2020

Andhra Pradesh Municipal Ministerial Subordinate Rules
AssamAssam Municipal Employees Act 2021

GMC Engineering Service Rules 2004
BiharBihar Municipal Service Rules, 2021
ChandigarhChandigarh Service Regulation 2020
ChhattisgarhChhattisgarh Municipal Corporation (Appointment and Conditions of Service of Officers and Servants) Rules, 2018

Chhattisgarh Municipal Service (Executive) Rules, 1973
Gujarat Gujarat Municipal Service Rules
GoaGoa Municipalities (Common Cadre of Municipal Engineers) Recruitment Rules 2006
HaryanaHaryana Municipal Services (Integration, Recruitment and Conditions of Service) Rules, 2010
HPHP Municipal Corporation (Disqualification of office bearers) Rules 2022
KarnatakaKarnataka Municipalities (Recruitment of Officers and Employees) Rules, 2010

Karnataka Municipal Corporations (Common Recruitment of Officers and Employees) Rules, 2011

Karnataka Municipal Corporations (Common Recruitment of Officers and Employees) Rules, 2012
Kerala
Kerala Local Self Government Department State Service Special Rules, 2020

Kerala Local Self Government Department Subordinate Service Special Rules, 2020
Madhya Pradesh
The M.P. Municipal Service (Executive) Rules, 197

The M.P. Municipal Services (Scale of Pay and Allowances) Rules, 1967
MaharashtraMaharashtra Municipal Councils, Nagar Panchayats and
Industrial Townships State Services (Absorption, Recruitment and Conditions of Service) Rules, 2006.
ManipurManipur Municipal Administrative Rules, 2016
Mizoram
Mizoram Municipal Common Cadre Service Rules, 2019
MeghalayaMeghalaya Disclosure Act, 2010
MizoramMizoram Municipality (Disclosure of assets and furnishing of other information) Rules, 2015
OdishaOdisha Municipal Finance Service (Method of Recruitment and Conditions of Service) Rules, 2017

Odisha Municipal Ministerial Service (Method of Recruitment and Conditions of Service) Rules, 2017

Odisha Municipal Service Act 2015
PunjabThe Punjab Municipal Services (Recruitment and Conditions of Service) Rules. 1975

The Punjab Municipal Corporation Services (Recruitment and Conditions of Service) Rules, 1978
Tamil NaduChennai Corporation Class III and IV Service bye-laws

Coimbatore Corporation Services (Discipline and Appeal) Rules 1986

The Madurai Corporation Services (Discipline and Appeal) Rules, 1975
West BengalWest Bengal Municipal Service Commission Act, 2018